In this episode, Dr. Roslyn Layton and Dr. James Lewis discuss how to control the proliferation of technologies for military use with a special focus on China. Our guests explain the history of US export policy regarding advanced technology, noting the delicate balance between opportunities for private enterprise and the needs of national security. Dr. Layton and Dr. Lewis describe the Wassenar Agreement and its impact on current US advanced technology exports to China. They also analyze China’s actions in retaliation to international technology export restrictions. Lastly, our guests evaluate how the Trump administration has acted in its approach to China and recommend actions the incoming Biden administration should take.